I included the instructions as well as the article in here…
You will be required to locate an empirical study in one of the personality journals and “digest” it.
Specifically, you will need to review some articles from one of the journals below, select a study that interests you, and review it. THEN, you must write a roughly three-page paper* and indicate in “layperson’s terms” (i.e., language that a person from the community could understand) the following:
(note: your paper should have these subheadings and address what I’m indicating for you to address in each section):
General Description of Study (What’s the topic? What was the goal or research question(s) of the study? Why did the authors say their study was important?)
Summary of Methods (Who were their participants, materials/inventories/scales, procedures, design)
Summary of Results (Tell the reader what the results were using non-statistical language)
Summary of Discussion (Tell us briefly what were the study’s important findings—which kind of repeats the Results—but also tell us the implications and/or importance of their findings according to the authors).
My Opinion about this Study (Tell us what you think about the study. Was it well-done? Or did you see any shortcomings of it?)
This is worth 10 points of your grade (which is an entire letter grade).
At the top of the page, report:
The Title of the Article
The Names of the Authors
The Name of the Journal
The Year, Volume, and Pages of the Article
YOUR NAME (make sure I can discern YOUR name if you want credit for this(!))
This must be typed, single-spaced, and I don’t care about the “format.”
NOTE: *Keep the paper around 3 pages (if you can perform this assignment well in less pages, great. If you need an additional page for this assignment, that’s okay. I’m not grading you based on quantity.
Assessment of Personality Profiles in Patients with Breast Cancers
ABSTRACT Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the frequent cancers among women, impacting 2.1 million women each year. It is a difficult situation, which is often perceived by these patients as a completely hopeless situation, which inevitably leads to a change in the patient’s personality. These circumstances make this problem one of the urgent issues and one of the priority tasks in medical psychology. The ability to cope with psychoemotional stress allows the patient to consolidate and fight against the disease. Purpose of the Study: The aim of our research is to study the psychological status of patients with breast cancer before surgical treatment and 18 months after the treatment. Materials and Methods: The study group included 100 women aged 25-55 years who were being treated in hospital. The control group consisted of 50 healthy women without history of mental illness and cancer. In our research patients with breast cancer were analyzed for assessing personality profiles using a questionnaire, which is MMPI. Results and Conclusion: We found a significantly increasing level of depression, hysteria, psychasthenia, paranoid in the period of diagnosis and in the remote period after surgical treatment. This indicates the necessity to use the technique of psychological correction at all stages of treatment in the breast cancer patients. And it is concluded and proven, that psychological correction can have major impact on remission of breast cancer and significant improvement in disease prognosis. KEY WORDS psychology, breast cancer, personality profile, personality, MMPI, oncology.
INTRODUCTION Breast cancer is one of the frequent cancers among women, which affects 2.1 million women each year, and also causes the greatest number of cancer-related deaths among women. From the recent statistical data of World health organization, it is estimated that around 6.27 lakh women died because of breast cancer, which is approximately 15% of all cancer deaths among women. While breast cancer rates are higher among women in developed regions, their prevalence increases in almost all the regions globally. Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women in Russia2). Data on incidence of breast cancer in the Crimea, shows that it ranks second after skin cancer – 18.2% and 10.4%, respectively. Breast cancer is difficult, traumatic situation, often perceived by patients as a completely hopeless situation, and the diagnosis is difficult, which inevitably leads to a change in the patient’s personality, separates the person from society and even from the family3). These circumstances makes this problem one of the urgent issue and one of the priority task in medical psychology. The ability to cope with psychoemotional stress allows the patient to consolidate and fight against the disease. The problem of survival, overcoming from the difficult life circumstances and protecting their fundamental values has become one of the main problems of their personality in psychology1,4,6,7,9). For women, the aggravating factor in the psychological aspect is not only a serious nature of the disease, but also the loss of attractiveness in connection with surgical treatment. The first reaction to the diagnosis is fear, anxiety, which gives way to prolonged depression, the adaptive mechanisms in the conditions of the disease are also exhausted, which leads to impaired immunity and impaired nervous system. Disregarding the psychological characteristics affects the quality of treatment and adaptation of patients after surgery. We cannot ignore the psychological characteristics of the character, personal qualities of the patient, her inner world and attitude to the disease. Understanding the psychological qualities of the patient allows the use of human psychological resources during treatment and to achieve a more complete adaptation to the consequences of surgical treatment. The delayed results of treatment and the positive dynamics in survival of cancer patients shows the necessity of psycho-corrective methods to be used in treatment to reduce social maladaptation1,4,5,9), and to improve the prognosis of the disease. The problem of social adaptation in women with breast cancer is currently an urgent situation, this is due to the fact that on one hand, an increase in the life expectancy of patients is seen, and on the other hand, with prolonged psychological discomfort, it leads to a decrease in the quality of life and it negatively affects the therapeutic effect8). PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of our research is to study the psychological status of patients with breast cancer before surgical treatment and 18 months after the treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study group included 100 women aged 25-55 years who are being treated in “Crimean Republic Oncological Clinical Dispensary named after V. M. Efetov”. The control group consisted of 50 healthy women who did not have a history of mental illness and cancer. At the time of the examination, patients in the control group were without any complaints about their state of health. Assessment of the psychological state was carried out using the MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) questionnaire. All procedures performed in our study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1975 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. As well as our research study is accordance with rules and regulations of the Ethical Committee of our Institution named “Ethical Committee of V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University”. Ethics Committee Protocol No. 2. 23/02/2018. THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY As presented in fig. 1 psychological profile shows that before the surgery in patients with breast cancer, the highest level compared with the control group is noted, on the scales of depression (D) and emotional lability (Hy). On the scale of hypomania (Ma) there is a marked decrease (p < 0,05). This suggests that in most of the patients depressive symptoms predominate, which is due to stress on the diagnosis, anxiety and fear of the upcoming operation. In this situation, patients are extremely emotionally labile, unstable, restless, unsure of the favorable outcome of the operation and treatment as a whole. This is evidenced by the ratio of indicators on the scales of depression (D), psychasthenia (PT) and hypomania (Ma). A slight increase in the L-scale (Lie scale) in patients with breast cancer indicates the patient’s desire to present themselves in a good view. As well as the compensatory processes is indicated by a moderate increase in the scale F. The F-K index is within the normal range, which characterizes the reliability of the results. Thus, when making an oncological diagnosis, depression arises as a reaction to the stress, it is combined with emotional lability, psychasthenia, a sense of fear and anxiety. Patients are in a depressed mood, the situation is exacerbated by the fear of death and uncertainty about the positive outcome of treatment. Women are extremely frightened by the crippling nature of the operation, the loss of female attractiveness and the deterioration of relationship with a partner. Along with this, an increase in the paranoia scale (Pa) indicates an increase in excitability, some aggressiveness, which can be considered as a manifestation of a protective reaction to the disease. The highest rates in the personality profile upon admission are marked on the depression scale, indicating its high severity and prevalence. These results are consistent with other studies5,8). In the long-term period after surgical treatment (18 months), patients showed [Fig. 2] a significant increase on the schizoid (Sc) and hypomania (Ma) scales and a slight decrease when compared with the admission on the scale of depression, psychasthenia and hysteria, however when compared with the control group, these indicators remain significantly increased. Thus, upon admission, the greatest rise was noted on the depression scale, in the long-term period this indicator statistically decreased and was at an equally elevated level with indicators such as hysteria, psychasthenia and paranoia. This indicates the necessity to use psychological correction techniques at all stages of the treatment. DISCUSSION The breast cancer is second most prevalent type of cancer and it is equally common in developing and developed countries (American Cancer Society, 2013). Despite favorable survival in developed countries, the most frequent cause of cancer deaths in women is still breast cancer, in developed and developing countries (GLOBOCAN: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2008). The treatment expenditure of breast cancer is a burden not only for people diagnosed with cancer but also for their families and society as a whole. According to American Cancer Society (2010) breast cancer is one of the top three types of cancer that caused the most economic impact ($88 billion)10-14). Previous studies showed the prevalence and correlation of depression in breast cancer. The prevalence of depression was higher than in the previously studied breast cancer patients15,16). Women in the present study (22 – 55 years) were younger than previously studied patients, which could explain about the differences; younger patients have shown to report more depression than older patients17). Also in our study by using MMPI scale we have used more criteria and found the difference among groups. Additionally, psychological symptoms may decrease the efficacy of treatment in cases of breast cancer18). Although the mechanism of how psychological distress changes the efficacy of the treatment is poorly understood, evidence suggested that psychological distress may cause stress which alters hormonal and neuronal secretions and affects the biological activity of breast cancer cells19). Therefore, the early studies of psychological symptoms and provision of effective symptom management may well maintain the effectiveness of the cancer treatment. Finally care dealing with the importance of psychological assessment into their palliative care should be therefore increased and their clinical attentions in diagnosing high-risk groups of patients undergoing cancer treatments have to be increased. CONCLUSION Not only a medical or surgical treatment can cure a disease, especially in these kind of dangerous and threatening oncological disease, the medical psychological support to the patient is also needed. As a rule patients willingness, self confidence, hopefulness has a major impact on treatment effectiveness. We have concluded and proven, that psychological correction can have major impact on remission of breast cancer and significant improvement in disease prognosis.
REFERENCES 1) Asmolov A.G. Psychology of Personality. – M.: Academy, “Sense”, 2007. 528p. 2) Davydov M.I., Axel E.M. Statistics of malignant neoplasms in Russia and the CIS countries. Medicine. 2005. 268 p. 3) Zeigarnik B.V. The pathopsychological method in the study of personality. Psychol. journal – 1982. – No. 1. – S. 43-51. 4) Maslow A.G. Motivation and personality. St. Petersburg: Eurasia, 1999. 478 p. 5) Meneghetti A. Psychosomatics of cancer. 2009.19 p. 6) Rogers K.R. Client-centered therapy. – M .: Reflbook; Kiev: Wakler, 1997. 318 p. 7) Frankl W. Man in search of meaning. – SPb .: Speech, 2000. 368 p. 8) Sharova O.N. Features of mental disorders in women after radical treatment of breast cancer and the formation of psychological defense mechanisms with them: abstract. dis. Cand. honey. sciences. – Chelyabinsk, 2000. 23 p. 9) Erickson E. Identity: youth and crisis. – M .: Flint, 2006. 342 p. 10) Ahmadian M, Samah AA. A literature review of factors influencing breast cancer screening in Asian countries. Life Science Journal. 2012; 9: 585-594. 11) Alacacioglu A, Yavuzsen T, Dirioz M, Yilmaz U. Quality of life, anxiety and depression in Turkish breast cancer patients and in their husbands. Med Oncol. 2019; 26: 415-419. 12) American cancer society. The global economic cost of cancer. The American Cancer Society, Inc. 2010. 13) Aranda S, Schofield P, Weih L, Yates P, Milne D, et al. Mapping the quality of life and unmet needs of urban women with metastatic breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2005 14: 211-222. 5. 14) Ardebil St, Bouzari Z, Shenas MH, Zeinalzadeh M, Barat S. Depression and health related quality of life in breast cancer patients. Academic Journal of Cancer Research. 2011; 4: 43-46. 15) Massie, M.J., 2004. Prevalence of depression in patients with cancer, Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs. 2004; 32: 57-71. 16) Pirl, W.F., 2004. Evidence report on the occurrence, assessment and treatment of depression in cancer patients. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs. 2004; 32: 32-39. 17) Hopwood, P., J. Haviland, J.G. Mills Sumo and M.J. Bliss. The impact of age and clinical factors on quality of life in early breast cancer: an analysis of 2208 women recruited to the UK recruited through a population-based cancer START Trial (Standardization of Breast Radiotherapy Trial), Breast. 2007; 16(3): 241-251. 18) Takahashi, T., M. Hondo, K. Nishimura, A. Kitani, T. Yamano and H. Yanagita. Evaluation of quality of life and psychological response in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Radiation Medicine. 2008; 26(7): 396-401. 19) Visser, M.R. and E.M. Smets, 1998. Fatigue, depression and quality of life in cancer patients: how are they rel
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