vanessa pham vs julio

CRIM 495: Checklist for Writing Your Paper

OVERALL FORMAT AND COMPOSITION (applies to entire paper)
12 point font, any style that is easily readable. One-inch margins all the way around. No running head or table of contents. Double-spaced throughout. Single-sided printing.
Number the pages at the bottom center, starting the “Introduction” section on a new page numbered 1. After this, only the References section is started on a new page. No page number on the title page. Here are step-by-step instructions that detail how to begin page numbering (starting with “1”) after the title page, in Word: https://support.office.com/en-us/article/start-page-numbering-later-in-your-document-c73e3d55-d722-4bd0-886e-0b0bd0eb3f02#startlater.
Indent the first line of every new paragraph half an inch but do not skip a line between paragraphs.
Use APA’s general style for overall structure: Introduction, Research Methods, Results (in this case, applications of the models to the crime), and Discussion (here, conclusions about best-fit model for this crime)
Use headings and subheadings to show overall structure and the content of each section or subsection. Format the various levels of headings correctly to show the relationships among the sections. Use an equivalent heading/subheading structure for equivalent sections. See Writing PPT 4.
Skip a line before (but not after) first-level headings, but not before or after other headings. No orphan headings (when a heading appears as the last line on a page).
Paraphrase your sources into your own words, instead of quoting them directly, to show that you understand them. Cite the sources you paraphrase.
Proofread, preferably while reading it out loud. Did you address the required points thoroughly, clearly, and concisely, without redundancies or “fluff”? Is it well-organized without ping-ponging back and forth among topics? Does it make sense and reflect a solid understanding of the concepts? Is it well-written and polished, without awkward phrasing? Are there any careless mistakes? Check your grammar, punctuation, spelling, and other mechanics.
DRAFT SECTION 1
Title Page
Three items only on this page: Title of paper, your name, your institutional affiliation. They should be double-spaced, centered horizontally, and centered vertically within the top half of the page.
Is your title 12 words or fewer? Did you use uppercase and lowercase letters? Is it in bold (only the title should be in boldface)? Does it summarize the essence of your paper, and will it engage a reader’s attention?
No running head. No page number. Any 12-point font that is easily readable.
Introduction
Did you start this section on a new page and begin page numbering with 1 in the bottom center?
Did you use the necessary headings/subheadings and format them correctly? No orphan headings.
Give the reader a basic introduction to what this paper is about: Why are theories of justice important, what are the names of the theories, and why are there different theories? What is the purpose of applying the theories to the crime? Focus on the crime, not the criminal case in the Fairfax County justice system. Cite any sources of information you drew on when discussing justice concepts. See Writing PPT 3 and the resource handout for correct formats for citations in your writing. Do not under any circumstances ever change the order of authorship for sources with multiple authors.
Include a thesis statement placeholder, such as “Insert thesis statement here.”
Crime description: tell the story of the crime – who did what to whom, when, where, how, why, and reactions to the crime (including reactions, aftermath, and/or impact of the crime on the victim/family, offender, and community). Include any relevant background, personal, or demographic information about the victim and offender. Focus on the crime, not the criminal case in the justice system. It’s ok to briefly mention the conviction charges and sentence if you want to, but do not detail how the Fairfax Police investigated the case, or events or arguments in the court case, etc.
Could someone unfamiliar with the crime fully understand what happened, and do you have all of the information you will need to apply each model of justice to this crime?
Did you cite at least 5 sources of information on the crime, including the court case file on Blackboard? See Writing PPT 3 and the resource handout for correct formats for citations in your writing. Do not under any circumstances ever change the order of authorship for sources with multiple authors.
Proofread, preferably while reading it out loud. Did you address the required points thoroughly, clearly, and concisely, without redundancies or “fluff”? Is it well-organized without ping-ponging back and forth among topics? Does it make sense and reflect a solid understanding of the concepts? Is it well-written and polished, without awkward phrasing? Are there any careless mistakes? Check your grammar, punctuation, spelling, and other mechanics.
Research Methods
Did you use the necessary headings/subheadings and format them correctly? Skip a line before level-one headings. No orphan headings.
How did you research the crime (not the theoretical models)? What was your starting point for learning what crimes were available to you, and the very basic facts of those crimes? How did you obtain further information? State the search engines you used, the databases you searched (give website addresses), and the keywords you used to find additional information on the crime. Present the keywords in quotation marks.
Did you search the databases the librarian recommended in the class presentation (see PPTs on Blackboard)?
No chit-chat! Do not discuss the specific sources you found or comment on the usefulness of the search engines you used or the databases you searched.
Proofread, preferably while reading it out loud. Did you address the required points thoroughly, clearly, and concisely, without redundancies or “fluff”? Is it well-organized without ping-ponging back and forth among topics? Does it make sense and reflect a solid understanding of the concepts? Is it well-written and polished, without awkward phrasing? Are there any careless mistakes? Check your grammar, punctuation, spelling, and other mechanics.

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DRAFT SECTION 2
Applications of the Models of Justice to the Crime
Did you use the necessary headings/subheadings and format them correctly? Skip a line before level-one headings. No orphan headings.
Give the reader a basic introduction to the theories of justice: What are some common themes across the different theories, and in what ways are the theories different (think about the social contract, procedural and distributive justice, and focusing on offenders only or both victims and offenders)? How will you apply these themes in your application of the theories to the crime?
Cite any sources of information you drew on when discussing these concepts. See Writing PPT 3 and the resource handout for correct formats for citations in your writing. Do not under any circumstances ever change the order of authorship for sources with multiple authors.
Proofread, preferably while reading it out loud. Did you address the required points thoroughly, clearly, and concisely, without redundancies or “fluff”? Is it well-organized without ping-ponging back and forth among topics? Does it make sense and reflect a solid understanding of the concepts? Is it well-written and polished, without awkward phrasing? Are there any careless mistakes? Check your grammar, punctuation, spelling, and other mechanics.
Applications of the Models of Justice: Retributive Theory
Did you use the necessary headings/subheadings and format them correctly? Skip a line before level-one headings. No orphan headings. Did you use equivalent structures for equivalent sections?
Does this section answer the question, “How would a hypothetical justice system operating according to this theory of justice respond to this crime?” Do not focus on what the Fairfax County justice system actually did in this case; forget about the Fairfax Police and the Fairfax Circuit Court, etc.
Did you apply the core concepts of this theory (review the PPT) to this crime? Show that you understand the core concepts by applying them to the crime; don’t just tell what they are by discussing them in general terms. Don’t summarize them first and then apply them to the crime; explain them by applying them to the crime.
Procedural justice: What processes would a justice system operating under this theory use to achieve justice for this crime? Review the PPTs on procedural justice for this model. Apply the principles of procedural justice for this theory to the crime, showing how those principles would be put into practice; do not just discuss the concepts in generalities. Don’t summarize them first and then apply them to the crime; explain them by applying them specifically to the crime. Use the correct terms for the key concepts. Do not discuss the concepts of trustworthy motives, neutrality/impartiality, citizen participation, and dignity/respect.
Distributive justice: What consequences or outcomes would the justice system provide to achieve justice for this crime? Review the PPTs on distributive justice for this model. Apply the principles of distributive justice for this theory to the crime, showing how those principles would be put into practice; do not just discuss the concepts in generalities. Don’t summarize them first and then apply them to the crime; explain them by applying them specifically to the crime. Use the correct terms for the key concepts. Do not discuss the concepts of equity, equality, and need.
Do not go into the details of deontological vs. consequentialist forms of retributivism.
Do not give your opinions on the model at this point; save your opinions for the conclusions.
Cite at least two sources of information you used on this theory, and use the sources provided in this course (the PPTs and the readings). Cite your sources each time you discuss a concept that you learned from those sources.
Check all citations in your writing for correct APA style. See Writing PPT 3 and the resource handout. Do not under any circumstances ever change the order of authorship for sources with multiple authors.
Double-check that all of the information you used about the crime in this section is covered in your Crime Description section.
Proofread, preferably while reading it out loud. Did you address the required points thoroughly, clearly, and concisely, without redundancies or “fluff”? Is it well-organized without ping-ponging back and forth among topics? Does it make sense and reflect a solid understanding of the concepts? Is it well-written and polished, without awkward phrasing? Are there any careless mistakes? Check your grammar, punctuation, spelling, and other mechanics.
DRAFT SECTION 3
Applications of the Models of Justice: Utilitarian Theory
Did you use the necessary headings/subheadings and format them correctly? Skip a line before level-one headings. No orphan headings. Did you use equivalent structures for equivalent sections?
Does this section answer the question, “How would a hypothetical justice system operating according to this theory of justice respond to this crime?” Do not focus on what the Fairfax County justice system actually did in this case; forget about the Fairfax Police and the Fairfax Circuit Court, etc.
Did you apply the core concepts of this theory (review the PPT) to this crime? Show that you understand the core concepts by applying them to the crime; don’t just tell what they are by discussing them in general terms. Don’t summarize them first and then apply them to the crime; explain them by applying them to the crime. You can use a shortcut by comparing and contrasting the core concepts of utilitarian theory with those of retributive theory.
Procedural justice: What processes would a justice system operating under this theory use to achieve justice for this crime? Review the PPTs on procedural justice for this model. Apply the principles of procedural justice for this theory to the crime, showing how those principles would be put into practice; do not just discuss the concepts in generalities. Don’t summarize them first and then apply them to the crime; explain them by applying them specifically to the crime. Use the correct terms for the key concepts. It’s ok to relate procedural justice under the utilitarian theory to procedural justice under the retributive theory, and just summarize the key points. Do not discuss the concepts of trustworthy motives, neutrality/impartiality, citizen participation, and dignity/respect.
Distributive justice: What consequences or outcomes would the justice system provide to achieve justice for this crime? Review the PPTs on distributive justice for this model. Apply the principles of distributive justice for this theory to the crime, showing how those principles would be put into practice; do not just discuss the concepts in generalities. Don’t summarize them first and then apply them to the crime; explain them by applying them specifically to the crime. Use the correct terms for the key concepts. Be sure to discuss the three means of crime prevention under this theory and how they would be applied for this crime. Do not discuss the concepts of equity, equality, and need.
Do not give your opinions on the model at this point; save your opinions for the conclusions.
Cite at least two sources of information you used on this theory, and use the sources provided in this course (the PPTs and the readings). Cite your sources each time you discuss a concept that you learned from those sources.
Check all citations in your writing for correct APA style. See Writing PPT 3 and the resource handout. Do not under any circumstances ever change the order of authorship for sources with multiple authors.
Double-check that all of the information you used about the crime in this section is covered in your Crime Description section.
Proofread, preferably while reading it out loud. Did you address the required points thoroughly, clearly, and concisely, without redundancies or “fluff”? Is it well-organized without ping-ponging back and forth among topics? Does it make sense and reflect a solid understanding of the concepts? Is it well-written and polished, without awkward phrasing? Are there any careless mistakes? Check your grammar, punctuation, spelling, and other mechanics.
DRAFT SECTION 4
Applications of the Models of Justice: Restorative Theory
Did you use the necessary headings/subheadings and format them correctly? Skip a line before level-one headings. No orphan headings. Did you use equivalent structures for equivalent sections?
Does this section answer the question, “How would a hypothetical justice system operating according to this theory of justice respond to this crime?” Do not focus on what the Fairfax County justice system actually did in this case; forget about the Fairfax Police and the Fairfax Circuit Court, etc.
Did you apply the core concepts of this theory (review the PPT) to this crime? Show that you understand the core concepts by applying them to the crime; don’t just tell what they are by discussing them in general terms. Don’t summarize them first and then apply them to the crime; explain them by applying them to the crime.
Procedural justice: What processes would a justice system operating under this theory use to achieve justice for this crime? Review the PPTs on procedural justice for this model. Apply the principles of procedural justice for this theory to the crime, showing how those principles would be put into practice; do not just discuss the concepts in generalities. Don’t summarize them first and then apply them to the crime; explain them by applying them specifically to the crime. Use the correct terms for the key concepts. Be sure to discuss the various points in the criminal justice system case processing at which restorative justice could, or perhaps in this case could not, be used. Do not discuss the concepts of trustworthy motives, neutrality/impartiality, citizen participation, and dignity/respect.
Distributive justice: What consequences or outcomes would the justice system provide to achieve justice for this crime? Review the PPTs on distributive justice for this model. Apply the principles of distributive justice for this theory to the crime, showing how those principles would be put into practice; do not just discuss the concepts in generalities. Don’t summarize them first and then apply them to the crime; explain them by applying them specifically to the crime. Use the correct terms for the key concepts. Do not discuss the concepts of equity, equality, and need.
Do not give your opinions on the model at this point; save your opinions for the conclusions.
Cite at least two sources of information you used on this theory, and use the sources provided in this course (the PPTs and the readings). Cite your sources each time you discuss a concept that you learned from those sources.
Check all citations in your writing for correct APA style. See Writing PPT 3 and the resource handout. Do not under any circumstances ever change the order of authorship for sources with multiple authors.
Double-check that all of the information you used about the crime in this section is covered in your Crime Description section.
Proofread, preferably while reading it out loud. Did you address the required points thoroughly, clearly, and concisely, without redundancies or “fluff”? Is it well-organized without ping-ponging back and forth among topics? Does it make sense and reflect a solid understanding of the concepts? Is it well-written and polished, without awkward phrasing? Are there any careless mistakes? Check your grammar, punctuation, spelling, and other mechanics.
DRAFT SECTION 5
Applications of the Models of Justice: Parallel Theory
Did you use the necessary headings/subheadings and format them correctly? Skip a line before level-one headings. No orphan headings. Did you use equivalent structures for equivalent sections?
Does this section answer the question, “How would a hypothetical justice system operating according to this theory of justice respond to this crime?” Do not focus on what the Fairfax County justice system actually did in this case; forget about the Fairfax Police and the Fairfax Circuit Court, etc.
Did you apply the core concepts of this theory (review the PPT) to this crime? Show that you understand the core concepts by applying them to the crime; don’t just tell what they are by discussing them in general terms. Don’t summarize them first and then apply them to the crime; explain them by applying them to the crime.
Procedural justice: What processes would the justice systems operating under this theory use to achieve justice for this crime? Review the PPTs on procedural justice for this model. Apply the principles of procedural justice for this theory to the crime, showing how those principles would be put into practice; do not just discuss the concepts in generalities. Don’t summarize them first and then apply them to the crime; explain them by applying them specifically to the crime. Use the correct terms for the key concepts. Do not discuss the concepts of trustworthy motives, neutrality/impartiality, citizen participation, and dignity/respect.
Distributive justice: What consequences or outcomes would the justice systems provide to achieve justice for this crime? Review the PPTs on distributive justice for this model. Apply the principles of distributive justice for this theory to the crime, showing how those principles would be put into practice; do not just discuss the concepts in generalities. Don’t summarize them first and then apply them to the crime; explain them by applying them specifically to the crime. Use the correct terms for the key concepts. Do not discuss the concepts of equity, equality, and need.
Be sure to discuss both of the parallel systems of justice under this theory.
Do not give your opinions on the model at this point; save your opinions for the conclusions.
Cite at least two sources of information you used on this theory, and use the sources provided in this course (the PPTs and the readings). Cite your sources each time you discuss a concept that you learned from those sources.
Check all citations in your writing for correct APA style. See Writing PPT 3 and the resource handout. Do not under any circumstances ever change the order of authorship for sources with multiple authors.
Double-check that all of the information you used about the crime in this section is covered in your Crime Description section.
Proofread, preferably while reading it out loud. Did you address the required points thoroughly, clearly, and concisely, without redundancies or “fluff”? Is it well-organized without ping-ponging back and forth among topics? Does it make sense and reflect a solid understanding of the concepts? Is it well-written and polished, without awkward phrasing? Are there any careless mistakes? Check your grammar, punctuation, spelling, and other mechanics.
DRAFT SECTION 6
Conclusion
Did you use the necessary headings/subheadings and format them correctly? Skip a line before level-one headings. No orphan headings. See Writing PPT 4.
Did you identify which model you think does the best job of bringing justice to this crime?
Did you fully discuss why its advantages outweigh its limitations as applied to this crime (see the PPTs on advantages and limitations of the model you’ve chosen)?
Did you fully discuss why you believe your choice is better than the other models as applied to this crime, considering the other models’ advantages and limitations (see those PPTs too)?
Did you cite the sources you used for information on the advantages and limitations of the theories? Cite your sources each time you discuss a concept that you learned from those sources.
Check all citations in your writing for correct APA style. See Writing PPT 3 and the resource handout. Do not under any circumstances ever change the order of authorship for sources with multiple authors.
Proofread, preferably while reading it out loud. Did you address the required points thoroughly, clearly, and concisely, without redundancies or “fluff”? Is it well-organized without ping-ponging back and forth among topics? Does it make sense and reflect a solid understanding of the concepts? Is it well-written and polished, without awkward phrasing? Are there any careless mistakes? Check your grammar, punctuation, spelling, and other mechanics.
References
Did you start the References section on a new page? Did you give it the correct title and format the heading correctly? See Writing PPT 4. Page numbering should be continuous from the body of the paper.
Did you use and cite at least five sources of information on the crime, including the court case file documents on Blackboard?
Did you use and cite at least two sources of information on each of the theories of justice (the PPTs and course readings)?
Check each source for correct APA formatting. See Writing PPT 3, the resource for the reference list, and writing worksheet 3B on the reference list. Do not under any circumstances ever change the order of authorship for sources with multiple authors.
Did you alphabetize entries (sources)?
Did you double-space the References section? Do not skip an extra line between entries.
Did you use half-inch hanging indents for each entry?
FINAL REVIEW OF ENTIRE PAPER
Make sure you made all changes indicated by your and my editing and review processes.
Did you insert your thesis statement (one-sentence summary of the essence of the paper) into an appropriate point in the Introduction section?
Go back and review the headings/subheadings you used throughout the paper. Make sure you used the appropriate heading/subheading levels to reflect the relationships among the different sections, and that you formatted the headings/subheadings correctly for their levels. Use an equivalent heading/subheading structure for equivalent sections. Skip a line before level-one headings. No orphan headings.
Make sure your title page is not numbered, the Introduction section starts on a new page and begins page numbering with 1, and your page numbering is consecutive throughout the rest of the paper, including the References. Only the Introduction and References sections start on a new page.
Cross-check all of the citations in your writing to ensure all sources cited in your writing are also listed in the reference section, and vice versa. Try highlighting each citation in your writing and then check to make sure all are also listed in the reference section, and all sources cited in the references section are also cited in your writing.
Proofread, preferably while reading it out loud. Did you address the required points thoroughly, clearly, and concisely, without redundancies or “fluff”? Is it well-organized without ping-ponging back and forth among topics? Does it make sense and reflect a solid understanding of the concepts? Is it well-written and polished, without awkward phrasing? Are there any careless mistakes? Check your grammar, punctuation, spelling, and other mechanics.

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